Home Nurse Facilities Data Note: How Could the Coronavirus Affect Nursing Facility Residents?

Data Note: How Could the Coronavirus Affect Nursing Facility Residents?

0

Introduction

As knowledge about COVID-19 continues to evolve daily, experts agree that certain populations are particularly vulnerable to severe cases of infection – those with chronic illnesses, weakened immune systems and who are old. Nursing facilities provide care to populations with these characteristics, and residents of these facilities are at particular risk of developing severe illness or death if infected. In 2017, approximately 1.3 million residents received care at 15,483 nursing facilities in the United States (Table 1). This data note provides key data points to highlight the potential implications of COVID-19 on nursing facility residents and overall operations.

Share of nursing home residents receiving respiratory treatment

Many residents of nursing homes have underlying respiratory problems and may be at particular risk of illness if they contract coronavirus. A common symptom of coronaviruses is respiratory illness. Approximately 16% of all residents of nursing homes in the United States received respiratory treatment in 2017, which includes the use of respirators/ventilators, oxygen, inhalation therapy and other treatments. Given the implications of this virus on the respiratory systems, these residents could be at greater risk of serious consequences if they were to become infected. In states like Colorado and Utah, more than 30% of nursing home residents receive respiratory treatment (Table 1). The supply of ventilators is also crucial to consider, given the increased demand for this equipment for those severely affected by COVID-19.

Share of nursing home residents suffering from depression

Anxiety and depression are also common among nursing home residents, and these health issues can be exacerbated by fear, worry, or social isolation due to COVID-19. Residents of nursing homes are at risk of being diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, with nearly 40% having exhibited symptoms of depression (Table 1). In Washington, where media attention has focused on the coronavirus outbreak in nursing facilities, nearly half of residents have experienced depression or depressive symptoms. Research on family involvement in long-term care has shown that family visits can have potentially positive effects on cognitive and behavioral health diagnoses. Thus, visitation restrictions in nursing facilities, which are currently being implemented to reduce the risk of exposure among residents who would be vulnerable to disease if infected, may also have negative health effects. mental health of residents and increase the incidence of depressive symptoms.

Share of nursing homes with gaps in infection control

Deficiencies related to the spread of infectious diseases are relatively common in nursing care facilities, with nearly 40% of facilities having at least one infection control deficiency in 2017 (Table 1). Deficiencies related to infection control are the most common deficiencies reported by nursing facilities, followed by food hygiene (36%) and accidental environment (34%). In Delaware, Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Michigan, and California, more than half of facilities reported at least one infection control-related deficiency (Table 1 and Figure 1). Given the importance of following infection control procedures to mitigate the spread of the virus, facilities that have reported infection control deficiencies in the past may be at high risk for a COVID-19 outbreak. 19.

Figure 1: States with a high proportion of nursing homes with deficiencies related to the spread of infection

EHPAD occupancy rate

Resident density could impact how quickly a COVID-19 outbreak could spread through a particular facility. Nationally, four out of five nursing facility beds were occupied in 2017, with some states such as New York and DC reporting even higher occupancy density (over 90%) (Table 1). Higher occupancy density puts residents at risk of faster spread.

In the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States, residents of nursing care facilities were more affected than any other group and account for a significant share of deaths. The physical and mental health conditions of these residents, the facilities’ ability to deal with infectious diseases, and occupancy rates are all important factors when it comes to combating the spread of COVID-19 in homes. nursing and other vulnerable populations.

State Total number of nursing facilities Total number of nursing home residents Share of residents in facilities receiving respiratory care Share of residents in facilities with depression Percentage of establishments with deficiencies related to the control of infectious diseases Facility occupancy rate
Alabama 228 22,482 18% 31% 48% 84%
Alaska 18 608 12% 35% 33% 88%
Arizona 145 11,343 23% 31% 22% 70%
Arkansas 231 17,439 18% 32% 39% 71%
California 1198 101,030 16% 23% 63% 85%
Colorado 221 16,078 32% 45% 42% 78%
Connecticut 223 22,653 16% 34% 31% 85%
Delaware 45 4,181 15% 32% 51% 87%
Dist. Columbia 18 2,380 14% 24% 39% 92%
Florida 690 72,741 17% 32% 42% 87%
Georgia 359 33,043 14% 41% 19% 83%
Hawaii 42 3,474 ten% 24% 43% 85%
Idaho 71 3,319 28% 49% 49% 63%
Illinois 731 66,643 14% 52% 56% 74%
Indiana 552 38,682 15% 41% 35% 73%
Iowa 437 23,638 15% 46% 22% 77%
Kansas 276 14,657 18% 47% 34% 77%
Kentucky 285 22,760 20% 36% 37% 85%
Louisiana 277 26,169 12% 26% 29% 77%
Maine 100 5,947 13% 49% 15% 87%
Maryland 226 24,414 14% 37% 40% 87%
Massachusetts 399 38,673 11% 38% 30% 84%
Michigan 443 38,062 16% 34% 58% 81%
Minnesota 375 24,755 15% 46% 40% 86%
Mississippi 204 15,950 12% 27% 51% 88%
Missouri 518 37,874 16% 38% 52% 70%
Montana 72 4,153 20% 43% 42% 65%
Nebraska 214 11,394 18% 50% 31% 72%
Nevada 61 5,336 27% 29% 38% 76%
New Hampshire 74 6,442 15% 41% 26% 87%
New Jersey 364 44,033 16% 25% 31% 84%
New Mexico 74 5,693 24% 39% 36% 79%
New York 609 101,518 14% 38% 20% 90%
North Carolina 429 35,763 16% 33% 17% 81%
North Dakota 80 5,531 15% 51% 34% 91%
Ohio 966 73,826 17% 52% 28% 82%
Oklahoma 303 18,361 18% 42% 30% 64%
Oregon 136 7,317 17% 32% 33% 65%
Pennsylvania 693 76,652 18% 36% 46% 87%
Rhode Island 83 7,817 9% 44% 5% 90%
Caroline from the south 191 16,993 14% 31% 21% 86%
South Dakota 108 5,984 18% 54% 43% 90%
Tennessee 314 26,481 19% 35% 31% 73%
Texas 1,227 92,250 12% 37% 48% 69%
Utah 99 5,178 32% 48% 43% 63%
Vermont 36 2,440 14% 49% 14% 79%
Virginia 286 27,595 18% 35% 38% 86%
Washington 217 15,993 17% 46% 43% 77%
West Virginia 123 9,251 18% 40% 42% 87%
Wisconsin 374 24,239 15% 45% 38% 77%
Wyoming 38 2,428 29% 47% 47% 82%
UNITED STATES TOTAL 15,483 1,321,663 16% 37% 39% 80%
SOURCES: KFF analysis of OSCAR/CASPER 2017 nursing facility data